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A guide to the research process involved in your EE.

Works Cited (Bibliography)

A works cited is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. 

The works cited must list only those sources cited.

Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay but were important in informing the approach taken should be cited in the introduction or in an acknowledgment.


A reference is a way of indicating to the reader, in an orderly form, where information has been obtained. A reference provides all the information needed to find the source material. References must be cited because they acknowledge the sources used, and enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented.

References must be given whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized. References can come from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, emails, internet sites and interviews.

It is important to remember that the citation style must be applied consistently and in line with the IB’s minimum requirements. 

The style should be applied in both the final draft of the essay and in the initial research stages of taking notes. This is good practice, not only for producing a high-quality final product, but also for reducing the opportunities and temptation to plagiarize.


A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, as an in-text citation. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the works cited list.

A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily. 

Page numbers should normally be given when referencing printed material and this is especially so in the case of direct quotations.

Once again, it is important to emphasize that there must be consistency of method when citing sources.

UWC CSC uses MLA 9 as its preferred citation style. For further details, please refer to the MLA9 LibGuide

Referencing Online Materials

References to online materials should include the title of the extract used as well as the website address, the date it was accessed and, if possible, the author.

With regard to electronic sources, the requirement of the IB for date stamping supersedes the requirements of the chosen referencing system.

In other words, all electronic sources must be date stamped by including the date the student accessed the resource (for example, accessed 12 March 2016).

Caution should be exercised with information found on websites that do not give references or that cannot be cross-checked against other sources. The more important a particular point is to the essay, the more the quality of its source needs to be evaluated.